Tests & Measures of Body Structures and Body Functions

JoLee is a four-year-old girl with mixed spastic/dystonic cerebral palsy, GMFCS III.  Her physical therapy progress report is due and you would like to use objective tests and measures that are appropriate for her age.  After looking through this list, you decide on the ECAB for balance, the SATCo for trunk control, and the HAT for hypertonia/dystonia.   Of course you will also do traditional range of motion testing and an Adam’s forward bend test.  What’s unfamiliar on the list?  The MPST for anaerobic performance looks interesting, but it isn’t valid for JoLee’s age. 

Are you wondering about tests and measures that fit into the body structures and body functions section of the ICF?  There are so many!  Some require certification and/or commercial purchase, but several are free.  Use this list as a quick reference to choose the measure that is age appropriate in each domain.  Additionally, click the links to quickly reference forms, instructions, or norms.

  • Blood pressure
  • Heart rate
  • Oxygen saturation
  • Range of motion/alignment
    • Spinal Alignment and Range of Motion Measure (SAROMM)
    • Structural integrity tests
    • Adams forward bend test with scoliometer
    • Posture grid documentation (*)
    • Beighton score– joint hypermobility 6-12 yrs 
  • Muscle Tone
    • Modified Tardieu Scale (MTS) – Assessment at two velocities, differentiates between contracture/spasticity.
    • Hypertonia Assessment Test (HAT) 4-19 yrs.
    • Dyskinesia Impairment Scale (DIS) 5-22 yrs
    • Barry Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS) Secondary dystonia secondary to CP/brain injury.  Age not specified.
  • Strength
    • Manual muscle testing/Functional Strength Assessment (FSA)
    • Standing Heel Rise Test. Children w/ & w/o plantar flexion weakness. 5-12 yrs
    • Five Times Sit to Stand (FTSTS) 6-18 yrs w/CP (measure of strength)
    • Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency Second Edition (BOT-2)(measure of coordination, dexterity, strength & agility) 4 yrs-12.11 yrs
    • Muscle Power Sprint Test- (MPST) (measure of anaerobic performance children and youth that run or propel wheelchairs, CP/Non-specific) 6-18 yrs. CP GMFCS I & II.
  • Trunk Control
    • Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo) 9 mo-16 yrs in CP (4-9 mo. study in infants)
    • Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS) 5-18.11 yrs
  • Endurance
    • 2-Minute Walk Test (2MWT) (measure of endurance) 3-17+ yrs
    • 6-minute walk test (6MWT) (measure of submaximal aerobic capacity/endurance) 2 yrs + (CP GMFCS I-III: anaerobic capacity, 3-12 yrs)
    • Early Activity Scale of Endurance (EASE) w/ CP, 18 mo.-5 yrs.
  • Balance/Vestibular
    • Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) 5-15 yrs
    • Early Clinical Assessment of Balance (ECAB) 18 mo-5 yrs. *
    • Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency Second Edition (BOT-2)(measure of balance, coordination, and vestibular) 4 yrs-12.11 yrs
    • Functional Reach Test (FRT)/Pediatric Reach Test (PRT)– limits of stability, anticipatory control. 5-15 yrs FRT/ 3-12.5 yrs PRT
    • Multidirectional Reach Test- limits of stability (MRT) 3-8 yrs.
    • Five times sit to stand- anticipatory postural responses (FTSTS) 6-18 yrs, CP
    • Activities Specific Balance Scale (ABC Scale) 18+ yrs. Measure of confidence in balance
    • 30 second sit to stand (18+)anticipatory postural responses (30CST) 18 yrs+, arthritis & joint conditions
    • Four square step test-anticipatory postural responses (FSST) 5-12 yrs CP, Down syndrome
    • Mini-BESTest (18+) – kidsBEST7-17 yrs. in development – multi balance domain test.
    • Dynamic Gait Index (DGI)- reactive postural control. 8-15 yrs.
    • Modified Test of Sensory Integration and Balance (MTSIB-M)-test of balance under different sensory conditions. 2 yrs +
    • Dix Hallpike Maneuver (DHM)- Vestibular: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).
    • Skull Vibration-Induced Nystagmus Test (SVINT)
    • Dynamic Visual Acuity Test- Non-Instrumented (DVAT-NI)- vestibulo-ocular reflex function (VOR)
  • Sensory
    • Sensory Profile 2  birth-14.11 yrs
    • Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-4 (MFVPT-4) 4+ yrs.
    • Snellen standard eye chart- visual acuity 6 yrs +
    • Tumbling E chart- visual acuity 3-5 yrs
    • Semmes Weinstein Monofilament testing- assessment of cutaneous sensation.

    • Proprioceptive tests
  • Pain
    • Non-Communicating Children’s Pain Checklist-Revised (NCCPC-R) can be used in all GMFCS levels, but mostly IV & V. Two-hour observation. 3-18 yrs
    • Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QoL)- V 1.0 Pediatric Pain Section. 8-17 yrs children with neurological condition. Adult Pain 18+.  Spanish/English versions. 
    • Gait Outcomes Assessment List (GOAL) 7-16 yrs- pain/discomfort section parent report, ambulant w/ CP. 
    • Caregiver Priorities & Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities(CPCHILDGMFMCS IV & V. Section 3: Comfort & Emotions. 5-19 yrs. 
    • Revised-Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, & Consolability Scale (r-FLACC) 2 mo-7 yrs postoperatively.
    • Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) 18 yrs +
    • Faces Pain Scale, Revised (FPS-R4-17 yrs, best >7 yrs
    • Color Analog Scale (CAS)  acute pain4-17 yrs, best >7 yr
  • Neonate/Infant Neurological Evaluations
    • Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) 2 mo – 24 mo
    • General Movements Assessment (GMA) birth- 20 wks of age

 

 

 

 

Author: spritelypt

Pediatric physical therapist

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